A second interstellar chemicals reference https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_dust is from Wikipedia and is summarized in the table directly below.
This shows the relative abundance of some of the various elements in atmospheric and ground sourced fallen interstellar dust grains. Note immediately that Magnesium, Calcium and Silicon are present along with Iron, Nickel and Copper all of which have been found in Angel Hair. Note also the high abundance of Magnesium, Calcium and Carbon in fallen coarse interstellar dust.
Other relevant Interstellar Dust References include:
“Lifetimes of interstellar dust from cosmic ray exposure ages of presolar silicon carbide” by Philipp R. Heck and Jennika Greer, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1904573117 describes silicon carbide presolar grains found in meteorites. These are present around star forming regions. This dust can act as a silicon source.
“Silicon carbide and the origin of interstellar carbon grains” by M. Frenklach, C. S. Carmer & E. D. Feigelson, Nature volume 339, pages196–198(1989) This paper discusses the growth of silicon carbide dust in interstellar space. Again, this dust can act as a silicon and/or carbon source. https://www.nature.com/articles/339196a0
“The Abundance Of Boron In Diffuse Interstellar Clouds”, 2011-02, Ritchey, A. M., Federman S.R., Sheffer Y. and Lambert, David L. of The University of Texas at Austin This paper discusses the abundances of boron in various portions of interstellar space. Boron is fairly rare on earth but is distributed widely in interstellar space. The continued interstellar production (to this day) of of B11or Boron-11 is thought by astrophysicists to be by spallation reactions caused by cosmic rays or neutrinos.
“The 11B/10B Ratio of Local Interstellar Diffuse Clouds” ,David L. Lambert and Yaron Sheffer, Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712
This reference shows that for interstellar boron B+ ions the B11 to B10 ratio in diffuse interstellar clouds is 3.4+-0.7. This could be quite useful in identifying interstellar Boron in Angel Hair samples. This ratio is about 4.0 for meteorite and earth samples. Beyond the scope of this paper is the fact that interstellar ratios of elemental isotopes for given elements (i.e. B11/B10) and for the ratios of different-element isotopes (such as a particular boron isotope to a particular copper isotope) is a growing area of astrophysics and may also be employed to verify whether Angel Hair is interstellar or atmospheric in nature. There are many potential signatures of interstellar material including isotopic ratios-such as for oxygen, presence of amino acids, presence of solar noble gases, presence of fullerenes, presence of specific carbides, and sulfides, m-kerogen and other prebiotic molecules. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/305235/meta
The Stardust dust-retrieval spacecraft returned 7 dust particles to earth which were composition and structure-analyzed. Most were comprised of magnesium and silicon plus varying smaller amounts of iron, oxygen, nickel, aluminum, sulfide, chromium, manganese, calcium and carbon. Both the US and Japan have sample return missions from asteroids on the way back to earth now. Extensive and varied hydrocarbons are anticipated in both samples.
Part 5: Likely Atmospheric Based Hydrocarbon and Dust Sources as Angel Hair Constituents
Terpenes comprise over 40,000 (to date) different naturally occurring hydrocarbon compounds in our atmosphere and originate primarily in forests, grasslands, shrubbery and trees. They are all ultimately related to the parent molecule isoprene C5H8. The term terpenoids includes the terpenes and their numerous oxygenated derivatives. Ethylene and Acetylene, for example, are found in the stratosphere. VOCs are volatile gaseous hydrocarbons and SVOCs have less volatility and appear as both gas and condensed aerosols. The VOCs play a role in tropospheric ozone formation. Methane (1.7ppmv) is also abundant in the atmosphere and has been (until recently) thought to be of modest reactivity whereas isoprene C5H8 (0.6-2.5ppbv) and terpenes C10H16 (0.03-2.0ppbv) are at lower concentrations. Ethane is also abundant and is fossil fuel sourced. Ethene, propene, propane, butanes are in the range of ppt over the southern oceans. Some hydrocarbons are particularly active when oxidized to produce ozone and for anthropogenic sources these have legal emission limits. Chlorinated compounds and chlorofluorohydrocarbons have multiyear tropospheric lifetimes and can seriously harm the ozone protective layer. Atmospheric hydrocarbons can be broken down directly or indirectly by photo-induced breakdown (as by sunlight or plasma surrounding a UAP). Much of the hydrocarbons in the atmosphere eventually become oxidized to form SOA or “Secondary Organic Aerosol”. Hydrocarbons such as isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes mostly eventually form SOA aerosol. Many of these hydrocarbons originate in conifer forests. SOA is also formed, for example, by the oxidation/ozonolysis of alpha-pinene, a very common global terpene from billions of trees.
The most important aspect of Atmospheric Dust is that some of it is fallen (falling or suspended) interstellar dust and some of it is kicked up desert dust such as from the Sahara Desert. The atmospheric dust sources and composition are a bit surprising. An excellent study was done using ice cores from Mount Everest so seasonal and long-term trends were identified going back to the year 1650. Winter-Spring is the maximal dust season there and that dust mostly comes from deserts. Interestingly there was no unambiguous evidence of manmade dust. To the surprise of the author Sr or Strontium appears in the ice cores. It is thought to derive from weathering carbonates as does the Calcium. Not surprisingly Calcium, Magnesium, Titanium, Aluminum, Sulfur, Iron, Sodium and Potassium all appear along with tens of other elements. Magnesium and Calcium are among the highest in the PPB range. Most Earth-sourced desert mineral dust stays suspended in the mid to upper troposphere for just a few weeks if that.
Part 6 Discussion-Including Photos of Attached and Released Angel Hair
There are some critical points to be made by the author as follows:
D-1) The mass of material in Angel Hair is tiny despite its seeming large tangled bulk.
One square meter of a 1-micron thick compressed hair deposit is enough material to form the following length single fibers:
10-micron diameter = 7.91 miles long
1-micron diameter (10,000 Angstroms). = 791 miles long
0.25 micron diameter (or 250 nanometers) = 1264 miles long
0.10 micron diameter (or 100 nanometers) = 79,085 miles long (3x earth circumference)
0.01 micron diameter (or 10 nanometers) = 7,908,524 miles long
As a reminder to the reader an average human hair is approximately 100 microns in diameter. Many nanofiber products have diameters in the 0.1um-5.0um (100nm-5000nm) diameter range. Electrospinning can easily make fibers in the range of 10um down to 10nm (0.01um). Individual Angel Hair fiber specimens range between a few microns to 0.1 micron in diameter and there are usually bundles of such adhered or fused fibers also present in fallen Angel Hair having locally compacted bundle diameters of 20um or more especially for our deduced UAP AC (vs DC) electrospinning. Depending on electrospinning stability and conditions Angel Hair can be smooth, coarse, include periodic bulges, include multiple radial layers, have branches, or even be rectangular in section.
D-2) UAPs are known to be surrounded by plasmas or glow discharges from dim to blindingly bright which are easily seen in the night darkness and can often even be discerned in rarer daylight UAPs. These plasmas are known to produce ozone which has been painfully smelled by numerous witnesses during many close encounters. Ozone causes unavoidable ozonolysis of hydrocarbons such as the ozonolysis of the above discussed hydrocarbon agglomerated coatings on the hulls of the UAPs. Thus, it should be expected that entry into the lower atmosphere will trigger degradation of accumulated interstellar coatings. By the same argument atmospheric accumulated coatings, especially from the hydrocarbon and SOA-heavy troposphere and stratosphere, should degrade at low altitudes whereat there is plentiful oxygen and water vapor to turn to ozone and attack the agglomerated coatings. Both scenarios drive agglomerated coatings toward more volatile and more flowable films at low altitude as well as produce some nonvolatile species. Such films are more easily fiber spinnable if they contain a flowable constituent. The warmer temperature at low altitude also helps reduce agglomerate viscosity to help flowability.
D-3) The role of water vapor and temperature can contribute to causing favorable electrospinning conditions. A small amount of water (or light oil), similar to what is absorbed from a witness’s fingers, will reduce semihard or thick waxy or greasy agglomerate viscosity markedly especially if some of the hydrocarbons are water soluble or absorptive Note that the UAP agglomerated film (at least the most recent top layer) is very thin so the permeation of the humidity will be very fast. Secondly, warmer temperature (but not too warm) at the lower altitude will also decrease viscosity making the film more flowable as well. So, we have three factors that will potentially reduce viscosity to make the agglomerated film more flowable 1) breaking down of the film by ozonolysis providing some more flowable species, 2) modest absorption of water vapor wherein the p-bonds of agglomerated cross-linked hydrocarbons may be broken down, c) and warming at the lowest altitude levels. The author stresses that multiple buildups of agglomerate or a very thick agglomerate can likely sometimes be plasma and combustion burned and turn into fallen slag which has been seen many many times. Slag simply isn't a sign that a UAP is itself burning up or is damaged.
D-4) The author mentioned diamagnetic spinning enhancement of electrospinning. Almost all hydrocarbons, waxes and greases (actually almost all materials) are diamagnetic meaning that in an intense magnetic field gradient they will be repelled toward the weaker intensity field by the UAP regardless of the momentary magnetic field polarity. For this to happen the net magnetic susceptibility of the material must be diamagnetic as many many materials are-such as water and many hydrocarbons. This is a new spinning modality suggested by the author, but it is quite reasonable and similar to electrospinning. Note that the instantaneous magnetic gradient acts similarly to the electrical gradient in electrospinning and continues to act on dried fibers that may have lost more volatile constituents. Note that the driving forces for electrospinning and diamagnetic spinning are approximately additive. One effect of having dual available driving forces for spinning is that the process window in which spinning can occur is expanded. For example, agglomerated hydrocarbon fluids with virtually no electrical conductivity can still be diamagnetically spun. Note also that any absorbed diamagnetic water in the agglomerated film can also itself pushed away from the hull by diamagnetic forces aiding spinning as are any inorganic diamagnetic dust. Note that AC magnetic fields always repel Angel Hair agglomerate regardless of instantaneous polarity!
D-5) (Atmospheric Agglomeration) A UAP sweeping through the stratosphere or troposphere and particularly accompanied by a DC bias voltage potential or no potential at all could attract a film of SOA, unreacted or unoxidized hydrocarbons and/or hydrocarbon coated dust nuclei. That film could possibly build up over several entries into or passes through our atmosphere. UAPs, at least in our atmosphere, appear to be surrounded by plasmas and/or glow discharges. The fact that several foolish witnesses have fired bullets at airborne UAPs and reported the "ping" of a hit on the UAP hull leads one to believe that UAPs are not always surrounded by impenetrable force fields (they have been observed surrounded by repelling forces on the ground as is understandable for defense). There is also the ballistic impact of such organics and SOA to be considered along with the so-called “sticking coefficients” of such impacting species. Recall that despite the low concentrations of SOA and unreacted organic hydrocarbons the UAP can sweep huge swaths of the upper atmosphere as well as sit stationary and attract such materials from around it. So although the density of the swept species is low, the swept volume is truly enormous. The author suspects that some UAPs build up thick multilayered agglomerated coatings during extended missions not unlike our own ocean-going ships accumulating hull-fouling growths to this day despite our best technologies.
D-6) (Interstellar Agglomeration) A very similar argument applies to sweeping up (or colliding with) interstellar organic and dust species. We recently now know that interstellar space is “greasy” or "waxy" and that that grease often nucleates upon solid inorganics (such as carbon, SiC and widely distributed interstellar ice particulates etc.). Further, we know that Boron is extensively distributed about interstellar space along with Calcium, Magnesium and Silicon and compounds thereof. Note that atmospheric inorganics, in a major part, mimic what falls from space and this dust also includes Strontium for example. The Strontium in the earth-based glacial telltale ice cores above did NOT indicate, via chronology, that it originated from human nuclear testing. It was likely volcanic in origin. Desert sourced dust and ocean salts contain lots of silicates (Silicon) along with Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Manganese and Boron. In interstellar space one may have the UAP traveling at an appreciable fraction of the speed of light. The author suspects that triangular UAPs typically have isosceles shapes partly because that shape reduces the sticking coefficient (if traveling point forward) of impacting species in some velocity range AND it might provide a possible modicum of drag reduction within the earth's (or UAP's home planet's) atmosphere while operating at low power. This would be true even if the UAP has a repulsive surrounding field of finite thickness. Recall that many UAPs are crescent (Kenneth Arnold’s) or boomerang shaped. Those shapes could provide some aerodynamic advantage however this author believes that the major controllers of UAP flight on Earth are force fields (such as may repel the surrounding air or ground) and NOT aerodynamic forces. On the other hand, a home planet with a thicker atmosphere would have much bigger aerodynamic effects on the UAPs than we observe on Earth. We have to be careful NOT to be so Earth-centric in our thinking. Humanoids observed many times in 1954 France were mostly 3-4 feet tall which makes sense for a bigger planet with larger gravity (as others have suggested) and with a likely thicker atmosphere wherein their UAP actually aerodynamically fly in addition or instead of only force-field flying (more in a future explanation).
D-7) Is Angel Hair Seasonal? The author believes it substantially is because it is forced by seasonal climate to be so. The most striking data is from New Zealand wherein the majority 8 of 11 cases were in the Fall months of March/April/May (Recall that is the Southern Hemisphere's Fall Season). These New Zealand months are characterized by cool weather with modest humidity as is Fall Season at any mid latitude. Note that in the Northern Hemisphere the Fall months are 6 months earlier (or later)-i.e. Sept/Oct/Nov and have similar weather and have also hosted many of the most well-known Angel Hair Cases including some cited above. Also note that October is centered in the Northern Hemisphere Fall Season. The cooler weather may assure sufficiently high viscosity of the agglomerated hydrocarbons to render it spinnable and to prevent it from being prematurely evaporated. It may also nicely limit water vapor absorption yet also limit evaporation of water.
D-8) Is Angel Hair intentionally dumped for any reason? The author believes that Angel Hair formation (as opposed to shedding of pre-hair agglomerate) is almost always an unintended but harmless event for the UAP. However the clearing of Angel Hair agglomerate film from a UAP's hull preferably in pre-hair agglomerate coating form is probably highly desirable for the UAP. UAPs can likely sense the pre-Angel Hair agglomerate coating load via electrical impedance and current leakage measurements between the UAP and the atmosphere. It makes sense that UAPs will take the opportunity to shed the agglomerating hydrocarbon film BEFORE electrospinning begins-at least sometimes. The author believes that this “precleaning” would be accompanied by several anticipated witness-observable behaviors. A list of these possible precleaning behaviors is give here:
UAP Skipping/Nodding motions- Kenneth Arnold's several UAPs all did this seemingly “foolish and pointless act” sequentially as if to also dump any residue received from their wingmen in front of them. Arnold's "skipping saucer" description turns out to be a major and technically descriptive clue after all.
UAP Zig-Zag motions- Flowable agglomerate would certainly be dumped at the sharp turns-repeatedly, as it deposits or prepares for emission. This may or may not be the sole reason for Zig-Zagging. Fibrous debris could also be shed aerodynamically as by a quite doable momentary reduction of any force-shield or pulsing of the UAP's electric field if any is present at that time. UAP crews, as others have suggested, may purposely tolerate some moderate and useful amount of acceleration well below that which would be injurious.
UAP 180 or 90 deg turns (Same as above)
UAP apparent explosions- Very frequently visually and acoustically observed-these could comprise a high-power pulse (and visible flash) to electrostatically and/or diamagnetically blow off the accumulated debris or to employ the levitating force-field to do so. Such seeming “explosions” would be accompanied by some acoustic signature and flash but would not likely damage the UAP. It is possible that the force field comprises, at least in part, diamagnetic levitation although how (or if) that works in interstellar space or at high atmospheric altitudes is to be explained (future explanation).
UAPs entering into or out of water such as ocean, river, lake or reservoir water- This may sometimes be related to cleaning as well- but also to hiding and possibly long-term presence if not outright residence. Behaviors, even among we humans, can beneficially have multiple parallel benefits. Note that humidity is higher over water and this could aid immediate or later spinning or shedding as described above.
UAPs "parking in" or darting in and out of clouds- Same as immediately above, a convenient and inexpensive carwash perhaps! UAPs may also hide in clouds from humans or from air traffic.
UAP rotation- One benefit, almost certainly not the only one, would be throwing off debris including flowable and unflowable agglomerate, slag and compacted attached fibrous masses seen in some UAP photos. Emitted Angel Hair has been observed in one case of this rotation having just begun.
UAP Instant starts to high velocity- These may ALSO provide cleaning as evidenced by smoke rings left behind comprising soot (SOA residue etc) and burned agglomerate film-also good to avoid danger or tracking
It will be noted that much Angel Hair has been seen shedding from UAPs in a slow casual dropping way or by simply being dragged into the wake of a slow moving UAP. The critical point here is that there is no blocking UAP force-field barrier (at that time) completely blocking access to/from the UAP hull as is so often implied. Further, there are several photos of UAPs with Angel Hair stuck to the hull if not stuck and compacted into dense matted layers upon the UAP hull. Some of these are shown below.
D-9) Angel Hair Analysis- The subject of isotopic ratios of particular elements found in Angel Hair as well as ratios of different element isotopes could probably prove, if true, the interstellar origin of the agglomerate. This would include compositional microanalysis of microdust nanoparticles therein. There have been tremendous advances in instrumentation such as for atmospheric hydrocarbon spectroscopy and compositional and crystalline nanoprobing.
D-10) Ocean sourced agglomerate accumulation possibility- The author thinks this unlikely but not impossible. However sea-based take-up of Boron into or onto an earlier deposited interstellar or atmospheric agglomerated film might be possible. By examining the isotopes of Chlorine, Sodium, Magnesium, Sulfur (Sulfate), Calcium, Potassium and Boron etc. and the ratios of those elements/compounds found in the Angel Hair it is thought that this could be ruled out (or in) versus the earlier interstellar and atmospheric sources cited. Boron concentrates in seawater all over the world albeit at low concentration.
D-11) A relevant interesting historic observation- Anyone familiar with UAP sightings will be aware of the Shag Harbor Nova Scotia, Canada incident wherein a UAP was seen to “land” on the Bay waters by several persons and then gradually submerge. Fishermen in trawlers quickly attempted to rescue the apparent crashed plane pilot but there was no pilot nor any plane found. What the trawler crews did see (along with other arriving witnesses on the water) was a thick yellow foam floating on the sea at the UAP site for about 20 minutes. This author was reminded of what happens when one agitates water plus oil-you get yellow foam. Many car customization enthusiasts are familiar with this hated yellow foam on the dipstick when a leak of oil occurs into the circulating engine cooling water. Coincidence? Maybe. We do likely have water plus hydrocarbons plus agitation in the Shag harbor case.
D-12) Interstellar vs Atmospheric sources of agglomerate- This will be decided by researchers in the coming years provided they have the ability, the interest and freedom and they can procure a stable sample of hair. Certainly, one can go in a lab and form a greasy possibly radiation-crosslinked film and expose it to electric and (intense) magnetic fields in various concentrations of water vapor and various ambient ozonolysis (oxygen plasma) and ambient temperatures and cause DC or AC fiber spinning. An excellent estimate of likely initial agglomerated film composition (and actual growth of such) can be obtained by several of today’s astrochemists. The author notes that despite the poorly supported Condon Report Conclusion the late Prof. Condon did at-least admit that there may be new information or future evidence that arises that deserves to be investigated. Perhaps this is it-together with the evidence of many others before me.
D-13) Does Ozone hole size variation affect Angel Hair events- This is actually the most complex question herein. Although the worst seasonal ozone hole is almost totally situated only over Antarctica it is also true that year-round Ozone concentrations declined above Arosa Switzerland between 1970 and 1994 from 335 to 307 Dobson units and is going back up now perhaps thankfully due to CFC and Bromine pollution controls. It could be argued that this decline slowed the viscosity-reduction of agglomerated coatings and reduced Angel Hair events presuming the UAP self-produced Ozone is a lesser actor. But does the UAP self-produced Ozone dominate? The natural upper atmosphere Ozone peak occurs between 15 and 30 km altitude in mid latitudes. In any event there was a proven ground level ozone shortage in the timeframe 1994-2010 approximately while there was also a minimum of hair falls. It may turn out that hydrocarbon p-bond breaking by ingressing hydrogen (from water) is more important than ozonolysis.
D-14) 3 photos of Angel Hair- Note that even what appear to be single strands are actually bundles of single fibers.
With respect to one widely posted photo I show directly below this paragraph there is still a controversy as to whether it is faked or not. This is the famous (infamous?) Petit-Rechain photo purportedly of a Triangle UFO overflying a camera equipped witness during the great Belgian Triangle UFO event which lasted several months during 1989-1990. I provide a link to the Wikipedia article here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belgian_UFO_wave. Several highly qualified and regarded technical experts stated that the photo is genuine and NOT a fake for several sophisticated reasons I will not repeat. However a youth stepped forward later and claimed he faked this photo below using a styrofoam model with miniature flashlights. There are several serious questions pertaining to this photo regarding the purported photographer's claim of faking it which I am not qualified to comment on. However I do feel qualified to make a few technical comments on the photo itself as listed immediately below the photo.
Srrands moving forward of craft-
force field assisted likely despite some drag
Serrated strand bundles moving behind craft-force field assisted likely
Strand bundle fallen completely
Strand bundle left behind
and beyond craft
Serrated strand bundles
due to pulsing of force
Forward slow velocity with
banking to crafts own right
Item 1) The photo above seems to show fibers (e.g. Angel Hair) moving radially away from each corner away from the triangles center. In fact at least one apparent fiber bundle in the lower right and one on the lower left seem to be floating away from the craft radially outward beyond the craft itself. I don't see how any type of light transmission through styrofoam or any lens light artifact could cause this. There appear to be other fibers floating along the triangle edge upward (in the photo) from the lower right corner.
Item 2) Some will claim that what you are seeing in the photo above is the result of camera motion or motion of a fake model during exposure. The fact that the multiple light strips or bands particularly in the lower two corners ARE NOT parallel or of the same shape AND that these light strips appear to all move radially away from EACH corner light says that motion isn't the full (or perhaps any part of) the explanation.
Item 3) I believe it can be argued that the corners of such triangular UAPs contain thrusters at-least for UFO orientation control (Suggested by D. Marler, author of "Triangular UFOs-An Estimate Of The Situation" published by Richard Dolan Press.). In my opinion the repulsive force of the thrusters seems to be pushing the fibers away from the corner force-field thrusters whereat they formed. Further, the central "light" may be a central thruster which is turned down in amplitude so that the corner thrusters provide maximum turning torque (plus replacement lift).
Item 4) It appears from the photo above that the UFO/UAP craft is turning (and pitching) toward the left (toward the crafts right). To do this would require the corner thruster on the lower right to be activated more strongly. Note that it is indeed brighter although more distant.
Finally, with respect to this very contentious photo, I have this to say. Like the famous Maslin Beach Photos from Australia (no Angel Hair apparent in those but they do show a superb daylight clarity and a smaller craft in rendezvous) this Petit-Rechain photo is fairly persuasive. Although i'm not a supporter of the countless baseless conspiracy theories I think in this unique case it isn't out of the question that an Intelligence agency incentivized the original photographer to become anonymous and perhaps also coached the person who did claim he took the photo (same person???) how to take another "similar" photo. I would regard that as a strategic intelligence move totally consistent with decades of UFO dismissal. I fully realize this is speculation and may be wrong and the photo is indeed a true fake. It is important to raise all possibilities and at the same time be clear about what is known for certain. It isn't known by me if this is a fake for certain or that the photographer claiming authorship was persuaded by anyone to do anything. Fortunately there is no doubt about Angel Hair falling from UFOs even without this photo.
Other photos probably showing Angel Hair (A.H.) on or falling from UAPs…..
https://web.archive.org/web/20130409055021/http://www.ufoevidence.org/photographs/section/northamerica/Photo391.htm Below photo-Attached Angel Hair somewhat compacted, 1980, Puerto Rico. Note the hair deposits also on the two red hemispherical protuberances. Photo credit Michael Hesemann of ufoevidence.org
https://web.archive.org/web/20130409034046/http://www.ufoevidence.org/photographs/section/europe/Photo384.htm Photo below-Compacted Angel Hair blanket climbing up the UAP's dome Alnegorsk, Russia, 1989. Photo also credit Michael Hesemann of ufoevidence.org
Angel Hair climbing up UAP dome
Angel Hair climbing up UAP dome
Possible Angel Hair bundles
stuck to dome
Finally we have a photo directly below thought to be of the known and multiply witnessed saucer-armada overflight of Farmington, New Mexico in 1950. The photo is found many places on the internet- this copy is from thelivingsky.com site. Again, I point out with arrows what appears to be agglomerated and matted Angel Hair (and not reflections) on the bottoms of several of the low flying UAP/UFOs. As one might expect because the UAPs are likely going to the left the agglomerated Angel Hair mats are skewed to the right.
D-15) There are hundreds of cases of UAP sightings at night wherein witnesses reported glowing “molten material” falling off UAPs to the ground yet nothing is ever found when the UAP leaves. The author believes that what is falling is backlit raw liquid agglomerate or semiformed fiber bundles in various states. To be more specific every process has a process window in which a product or range of products can be produced. Witnesses know that in addition to the “molten metal” (liquid agglomerate), slag also falls off UAPs. Slag is probably merely thermally burned or completely carbonized agglomerate! What must be kept in mind is that UAPs can “cook” agglomerate before spinning as by thermal heat, radiation and plasma-aided combustion. Again, plasma-aided combustion is a new technology being investigated by industry. To be sure true “molten metal”. on very very rare occasions, does fall, such as in the case of ultrapure molten Tin in the 1954 Campinas Brazilian case. In that case the liquid Tin was almost certainly molten tin coolant for a UAP power plant. That use of molten metal coolant was suggested in the far past by a UAP investigator but the subject quickly disappeared from UAP Researcher’s discussions. This author has found research done by the US Naval Post-Graduate School in Monterey California which suggests molten Tin as a future nuclear reactor coolant. I don’t recall any mention of UAPs therein as expected!
Part 7: Conclusions / Recommendations
Fourteen elements: Boron, Silicon, Calcium, Magnesium, Carbon, Potassium, Aluminum, Oxygen, Chlorine, Iron, Sulfur, Manganese, Sodium, and Strontium are found in Angel Hair AND in one or both of Interstellar Dust and Atmospheric Dust. Strontium in our atmosphere precedes nuclear testing by 300 years based on ice core work at Mt Everest. This is because Strontium can come from volcanic lavas and become wind blown dust and it typically has a SR86/Sr87 ratio which could be useful in identifying interstellar Strontium.
Most atmospheric Boron dust on Earth comes from sea spray. Boron is found routinely in Interstellar space spread over vast distances.
Both on Earth and in Space these individual elements have specific isotopic ratio ranges caused either by Earthly processes or by different space-based processes. Further, the ratio of particular isotopes of element A to isotopes of Element B are also frequently individually peculiar to Earth and Space for the same reasons. It seems promising that such signatures may allow the proving of the source of these elements in Angel Hair using the very latest instruments.
On Earth naturally sublimating substances aren’t common (e.g. dry ice CO2) and ice sublimates to water vapor albeit slowly. Angel Hair is clearly a metastable material. Such metastable materials in Materials Science are frequently formed with processes that proceed far from equilibrium. These are frequently rapid high-energy processes. UAPs are certainly high energy objects.
Although “sublimation” has been described in fact there are other processes that could mimic sublimation such as hydrogen bond induced p-bond breakdown by water or hydrogen exposure. Substances that undergo this are characterized by large losses in stiffness upon water wetting and regaining stiffness upon drying-like Angel Hair. This may be one mechanism at work in the progressive disappearance of Angel Hair. Again, “sublimation” has not been proven technically-just disappearance.
Interstellar and Atmospheric dust contain dominant and numerous nanoparticles which won’t be readily visible in an apparently empty vial from which visible Angel Hair has disappeared. This presumes the nanodust doesn’t go into solution and vaporize along with the hydrocarbon volatiles-it is doubtful much of it vaporizes.
The array of hydrocarbons available both in our atmosphere and in interstellar space is mind boggling even to Astrochemists and Atmospheric Chemists. Since Scientists now know how to make “replicas” of both atmospheric hydrocarbons (e.g. SOAs) and interstellar hydrocarbons and “age” them appropriately via exposure to oxidizers and radiation respectively, it seems quite reasonable that such replicas could be used to attempt to reproduce the electrospinning, diamagnetic spinning or even combination spinning of metastable hair fibers. The “sublimating” would almost certainly be the challenge and not spinning itself which has been widely practiced with almost every imaginable flowable hydrocarbon in pure or dissolved form. It is very possible that part or all of the original metastability is caused by radiation upon the forming fibers (or upon preagglomerate) such as UV, X-Ray or Gamma radiation which are known to be emitted by UAPs such as in some spectacular human exposure and “burn” cases (and several resulting deaths). The act of AC spinning vs DC spinning may also result in inherently less stable fibers due to alternately charged fiber portions and AC electrospinning is almost certainly the main mechanism.
The reproduction of metastable Angel Hair could serve as the first solid evidence of visiting craft employing technology well beyond what we will be capable of any time soon. Why not reproduce it?
Finally, presuming mankind reverse engineers UAP propulsion technology-perhaps with the help of knowing Angel Hair formation process regimes-it is unlikely that the discovered propulsion technology would remain proprietary. Variations upon the basic technology as we have in Aerospace, Space Vehicles, Submarines, Automobiles, IC Fabrication and Radar would absolutely and almost overnight be expected from various Nations. Certainly, UAPs would observe that “advancement” as well.
Jack Sliwa. 093020
Addendum #1 of 11/22/20 New supporting Mufon Case# 51233 of the March 2014 MUFON Journal on page 8. Includes a nice illustration by N. Gagnon of two Triangle UAPs seeming to conduct a mapping operation on the night of 09/24/13 in Roanoke, Virginia. I first note that the date is in the Angel Hair Peak Season. Second, I note that the translucent particles, per my own estimation, are drying/dried agglomerate droplets or are shredded emitted Angel Hair. (credit report to MUFON)
Addendum #2 of 11/22/20 This link: ufo-unidentified-flying-object-photographed-at-inglewood-beach-california-on-12-january-1972-in-a-series-of-camera-frames-16-frames-in-all-were-taken-of-this-object-wendelle-stevens-archives-with-arrangement-with-charles-walker-MC86DR.jpg. is a sample of a stock photo available from Alamy. Note that in the two adjacent movie frames is depicted what I argue to be shedding Angel Hair on this apparent daylight Triangle UFO which can be seen to change position and shape especially at the forward tip.
Addendum #3 of 11/28/20 Appearing in the April 2015 Mufon Journal on page 23 is mention of a multiwitness UFO case on 04/17/52 first reported in the San Francisco Examiner on the next day 04/18/52 over Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada. One military and four civilian contractors observed eighteen Disk-type UFOs pass over at very high speed. Of the eighteen, seventeen were in formation while only one was separately zig-zagging off to the side. I believe this shows that the zig-zagging wasn’t to avoid radar since the other seventeen did not zig-zag and were plainly visible anyway. This tends to support the explanation above of zig-zagging being a self-cleaning action and not an evasive action-at least in this case.
Addendum #4 of 12/18/20. UAPs seen spewing A.H. continue. See P. Budinger FTIR spectral results from her report number UT096 which case took place Nov 2016 in Illinois USA with a dozen barbell UAPs. The two witnesses were highly trained professionals. The UAPs all moved to the center of a lake just before A.H. emission. That can add humidity and decrease agglomerate viscosity (promoting A.H.emission). I believe A.H. is simply a typically unavoidable side-effect of UAP presence. It isn’t at all surprising, knowing the potential raw materials available and AC spinning technologies that “Spider/Caterpillar-Like FTIRs” can be acquired from AC electrospun similar raw materials.
Addendum #5 from snippets: Originally added: 01/26/21 from the book "Flying Saucers-Here And Now" by F. Edwards. (page 20) Report of a red disc UFO zigzagging wildly over the Wanaque Reservoir in New Jersey the evening of 10/16/66. Note that the UFO had also appeared a few days earlier. It is proposed that this is an angel hair (or pre-AH agglomerated coating) cleaning measure. The humidity from the reservoir likely reduced the agglomerate viscosity as mentioned elsewhere.
Addendum #6 from snippets: Originally added: 01/26/21 from the book "Flying Saucers-Here And Now" by F. Edwards. (page 226) Report from 02/16/67 in Topeka Kansas wherein family reported fire dripping from a UFO at 500 ft that appeared as burning white phosphorous. It is proposed that this is an example of burning slag from combusted angel hair or pre-AH agglomerate. Note again that such combustion would include conventional thermal combustion plus plasma enhancement plus additional plasma-induced light emission over and above conventional combustion only.
Addendum #7: After just reading the book "Encounter" by Kelly Cahill regarding her famous and rather disturbing Australian simultaneous abduction of multiple independent parties by 20 or so abusive and aggressive aliens I note that at the landing site of the 150 foot or so UAP there were some physical anomalies found. These included a crescent shaped magnetic signature in the ground and pyrene plus sulphur plus tannic acid traces on the ground in that exact touchdown area. It turns out that pyrene is an exceptionally stable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) known to be found in interstellar space and accounting for less than 1% of interstellar carbon. (Recall from directly above that waxy hydrocarbons account for 50%). Pyrene, in dehydrogenated or ionized form, has recently been shown to likely account for a number of long unidentified interstellar UV-absorption bands. Pyrene, on earth, is produced by combustion such as wood burning and diesel engines and the pyrene molecules combine (dimerize) to form familiar atmospheric soot. Recall that UAP smoke rings are thought to comprise soot (as can also be formed by oxidized waxy hydrocarbons). Thus we now have two independent chemical constituents from interstellar space that probably account for Angel Hair as well as Smoke (Soot) Rings. The academic papers below describe interstellar pyrene. This is placed in the Angel Hair Section B since this is where I have already discussed interstellar chemical species (waxy hydrocarbons) brought to earth by UAP.
Ref1) "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands" by G.P. van Der Wet and L.J. Allamandola, in Astron. Astrophys. 146, 76-80 (1985)
Ref2) "Structural investigation of doubly-dehydrogenated pyrene cations" 07/27/20, Phys. Chem Chem.Phys 2020, 22, Sanjana Panchagnula, Jordy Bouwman, Daniël B. Rap, Pablo Castellanos, Alessandra Candian, Cameron Mackie, Shreyak Banhatti, Sandra Brünken, Harold Linnartz and Alexander G. G. M. Tielens