Explanation Of Metal Chunks and Molten Metal Streams Fallen From Inside UAPs
Jack Sliwa- Technologist uapbehavior.com 02/26/21
An explanation is given in this paper for the unexplained wide variety of solid metallics and molten metal streams which have fallen from the interior of UAPs to the ground and which were molten or very likely hot at their time of dropping. The prior explanation for materials, including porous slag and Angel Hair, falling from the exterior of UAPs is given in the Angel Hair section of this website and is NOT the subject of this specific paper. Several metallic drop events, some of whose UAP interior vs.exterior source is unknown, are listed in Refs M1 and M17. Any falling hot molten streams will rapidly solidify and eventually cool upon the ground. I do not make any assumptions about whether the metallic drops should have “unearthly” interstellar isotopic makeups nor whether the elemental constituents thereof should match or be similar to earthly alloys used for current human spacecraft structures or technological devices. As an example of the danger of the isotopic difference presumpton, tin (24 isotopes) has been shown to be virtually isotopically identical within 1% whether from tin ore anywhere on earth or from meteorites. Avoiding those assumptions further allows for the logical yet nonobvious explanation given below. The key to the offered solution is to look at where human technology is inevitably going in the future and how that future technology will certainly require new unavoidable ongoing maintenance processes.
A monitoring of human technology trends shows that human technological devices, in general, continue to cram in more functionality and power-dissipation per unit volume. This is certainly true of GEN4 nuclear reactors under cooperative global development (which, believe it or not, will still drive steam turbines) and which will utilize flowed molten metal coolant such as molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic liquid for heat transfer (Refs M2, M4). Molten flowing metals can transport a truly enormous amount of heat energy in a very small space. However, a first issue with some reactor liquid metal coolants first considered in 1951, is the unavoidable accumulation of radioactive species such as alpha radiating polonium-210 in lead based or lead-bismuth based reactors which complicates maintenance and safety (Ref M3). In a molten-tin coolant-based reactor one would expect activated tin-121 from the tin-120. (Ref M3) It has been recognized that pure molten tin coolant thereby does not have the Po-210 or Pb-210 alpha nuclide nor gamma nuclide problem (Ref M3) when likewise used as a coolant-but liquid tin and its eutectic alloys have not yet been characterized (Ref M3) as thoroughly as lead-based coolants with respect to aspects such as corrosion of the containment system and coolant plumbing. Further, for human-designed spacecraft having different requirements, liquid metals are also being investigated such as sodium-potassium liquid alloys (Ref M5) and potentially lithium (Ref M2). Obviously, human spacecraft have extreme weight limits, so lead’s mass may be an issue depending on quantity. Note that the Russians employed both lead-bismuth coolants on Alpha class military submarines for 20 years as well as sodium-potassium (NaK) based coolant on a past spacecraft. Liquid metals may also be employed to cool and/or shield nuclear fusion (as well as fission) reactors (Ref M6). Liquid metals are even being investigated now for use in cooling massively powerful semiconductor I.C.s and solid-state laser chips (Refs M10, M11). So, what does this have to do with UAPs dumping solid and liquid hot metallics? Bear with me a bit longer.
The second mentioned greater concern than even the above built-up radioactive species is that all liquid metals attack (one or more of corrode, erode or penetrate), to some degree, their containment vessels (containments) in which they reside or flow (Refs M3 pages 28-36, M7). This results in constituents of the containment vessel material(s) ending-up in the molten metal coolant. For stainless steel containments the dissolution by molten lead coolants of highly soluble nickel, chromium and manganese are significant. That, plus undesired formation of free-floating lead oxides and sludge in the coolant can cause many serious problems even if the containment doesn’t itself rupture-such as coolant flow blockage and/or enhanced corrosion/pitting of the containment (Refs M2, M6, M7). Layered upon those issues, for human designed nuclear GEN4 fission plants, will be neutron damage to reactor components and the production of some amount of tritium. Even fusion plants will produce tritium or actually breed some tritium (Ref M6). Finally, the most advanced earthly fusion approach under development from Australia, (Refs M5, M8) utilizes powerful petawatt laser pulses to directly cause fusion of boron and hydrogen. The approach is very promising and could also get rid of steam generators. It is quite possible it is a UAP power source. Even that approach will require intense cooling of the very small fusion zone, the lasers as well as of the adjacent zone whereat the produced ion-current is preferably directly converted to a useful voltage (without any turbines!). Note that by “cooling” I mean heat-removal from a superhot temperature to just a hot temperature. Thermodynamics allows for higher thermal efficiencies under these challenging conditions of very hot operation. In any event, regardless of the system’s overall thermal efficiency or energy production, flowed molten metals can remove a huge amount of heat from a very small space. So let me now specifically relate all this to UAPs.
A historic fact is that one seemingly distressed UAP has dropped gallons of ultrapure liquid molten tin in Campinas Brazil as seen and touched by many witnesses in 1954 (Refs M1 page 209, M12). There is little doubt in my mind that such ultrapure tin in such large quantities had any useful purpose other than as a molten metal coolant such as for a propulsion power plant or for cooling fusion-driving lasers and related voltage generation means. Liquid molten tin has been specifically suggested as a nuclear system coolant multiple times by multiple scientists and engineers including as mentioned in some of the references herein. One needs to go to great expense and trouble to manage such a molten-metal device-even just to keep it operating safely without degradation. High technology can be expensive. Note specifically that the revolutionary Russian Alpha-class subs eventually were decommissioned after 20 years after an accident involving the unanticipated and hidden buildup of oxide sludge (PbO) in their lead-bismuth eutectic reactor coolant loops. More recently this problem has been purportedly solved for GEN4 reactors according to the Russians who have always been advanced in metallurgy and nuclear engineering. Human molten tin is not nearly as pure as the Campinas specimen was and is not yet used as a system coolant by humans. Humans do, however, use huge amounts of much less pure molten tin in glass-making wherein the sheet of molten glass is actually floated on liquid tin (float-glass process). In any event, any molten metal coolant will attack its containment vessel at a finite rate. The way one deals with such dissolved or eroded contaminants and attack is to prevent contaminant release from the containment vessel walls, filter the contaminants out or otherwise redissolve them (e.g. redissolve PbO). The containment walls can sometimes be passivated as with oxides depending on the materials involved and the necessary narrow control of soluble oxygen and water (Refs M3, M6). It occurred to me that UAPs probably likewise cleanse their coolants to prevent problems and that the dropped metallic chunks witnesses find are dumped slugs of such concentrated contaminants accompanied by occasional flushing streams of molten coolants occasionally being ejected overboard out of a waste port(s). UAPs might even utilize their super-strong magnetic field abilities to cleanse the flowed molten coolant as suggested here by diamagnetic or paramagnetic refining in the molten or near molten state. Humans don’t know how to make such compact strong magnets yet. UAP power systems also likely electromagnetically pump the molten metal as humans fully intend to in several fission and fusion reactor designs and as has been already demonstrated. The reader may recall from widely reported and filmed lab experiments that a ~13 Tesla focused magnetic field is enough to levitate (upwardly repel) a live frog based mostly on diamagnetic repulsion of the frog’s bodily water. The UAP designer would simply employ flowed molten coolant having either a diamagnetic or paramagnetic property different from constituents of their UAP containment vessel. Most preferably the coolant species would be diamagnetic (or paramagnetic) and the containment species would be the opposite i.e. paramagnetic (or diamagnetic). This would magnetically send the two materials in opposite directions in the small purification subsystem with considerable speed compared to slow human solid-state heat-zone refining techniques. Obviously the “contaminant” species would be amassed near an ejection port. I further note that I have not discussed the myriad methods of gas and water injection into molten metal coolant nor mechanical filtration or cold-traps to limit the formation or buildup of free floating sludge (usually oxides) such as for lead or lead-bismuth coolant systems. These may also be applied to tin or even aluminum coolants.
It will be appreciated that the Campinas, Brazil liquid tin fall (Refs M1,M12, M14) further referenced below represents an extreme case wherein the impurity slug (molten or semi-molten contaminants) was ejected by and followed by gallons of the pressurized pure tin coolant to assure a complete flush and blockage removal. It is not obvious the initial concentrated contaminated material can be found-and it may have been a very small amount plugging the dump port which was broken up and/or redissolved in the following pure tin release. Note that the contaminant slug ejection may have utilized a temporary high pressure pulse. Most liquid metaI coolant schemes involve very low pressure not much above a few PSI. I want to remind readers again that when we discuss “falls” of debris from UAPs that I’ve proposed two unrelated groups of materials as follows and per the prior website postings herein:
1) External UAP-sourced fallen materials: (a) Flowable hydrocarbon/dust agglomerate which often emit as Angel Hair and, (b) Thermally or thermal/plasma burned material from (a) which we call “slag” (per Angel-Hair Parts A/B website section of explanations). Note that metals found in porous slag come from interstellar and tropospheric dust and have no relationship to any UAP-internal molten metal UAP coolant which may or may not be being used. A superficial part shot off of a UAP also falls in this category (e.g. the believable purported magnesium orthosilicate specimen with microspheres)
2). Internal UAP-sourced fallen materials (THIS PAPER): (c) Dumped slugs of primarily metallic nonporous contaminants removed from molten coolants such as in the Swedish Tungsten-Carbide/Cobalt sample case of Ref M14 below and, (d) the liquid metal coolant itself if massive flushing of the dump port is necessary or unavoidable (such as in the Ref M12 Campinas, Brazil case referenced below). The 1977 Council Bluffs, Iowa case also referred to below (Ref M14) likely involved a significant dumping of molten iron contaminant extracted from an unknown coolant such as a lead-based or even aluminum coolant. An iron-based coolant is thought unlikely but that could be wrong. For example the ferromagnetic properties of such a flowed (or not) molten iron metal might have something to do with a magnetic propulsion means. Another possibility is on-board refining of metal ore to obtain the desired coolant and reject the iron. Another is the meltdown of a single UAP system component which must contain iron (e.g. a stainless oxygen sensor in a molten lead system). These are quite speculative. What isn’t speculative is the 85 pounds of molten iron dropped on Council Bluffs by a red glowing UAP. Note that Fe-56 is at the end of a known fusion decay chain in stellar nuclear reactions and Fe-54 is stable for eons. It would be beneficial to do isotope analysis on all dropped molten metal as well as gas analysis of bubbles trapped therein looking for nuclear derived helium or blanket-sourced helium or blanketing argon. Also, we would like to know the radioactivity level of all the samples-no matter how old-and what type of radioactivity is present, e.g. alpha, beta, gamma…
Note that depending on the molten coolant employed we humans have a reasonable idea of which structural materials would be best-suited to that molten metal to minimize (but not eliminate) dissolution and erosion of the containment vessel into the flowed molten coolant. If poor pairing of containment and coolant is made some containment materials erode/corrode millimeters per month in the 800-1000 Deg C regime. Most current human-intended applications involve maximum temperatures less that 600 Deg C-more likely 500-550 Deg C. Again, sometimes oxygen, water and hydrogen in the coolant are one or both of injected and/or carefully regulated to coat the containment walls with oxide (Ref M2 slides 27-29) but NOT so much as to grow free-floating oxides in the coolant itself. So, in summary, one would expect to find containment wall constituent materials (or compounds thereof) in the coolant and these would comprise a fraction-of or most-of the dumped metallic makeup especially for a small lone dropped slug. Depending on what the coolant is used for one might also find polonium 210, bismuth 210, helium, hydrogen, helium or tritium as nuclear or fusion byproducts. Note that tritium has been found at at-least one UAP related incident in California in a 1976 Angel Hair Specimen (Ref M13). It is an unavoidable nuclear byproduct gas which normally only barely diffuses from human reactors at a low (acceptable) rate at a very low pressure.
Metals which corrode/erode from containments very often include iron, chromium, nickel and manganese such as from a stainless-steel containment. Note that three of these metallic elements comprised the majority makeup of the famous 1977 Council Bluffs, Iowa molten-metal droppage (Ref M14 p367-372) wherein there may have been a UAP problem of long-term iron, chromium and nickel dissolution from a stainless-steel containment such as by a lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Notice that this distressed UAP also came rocking to the ground. Second, we have the Vaddo Island, Sweden case of 1956 (Ref M14 page 365). There a hot metal slug comprising tungsten-carbide and cobalt was found. That strongly indicates to me a refractory metal containment structure. Many containment materials are being tested here on earth for our own earthly applications including refractory metal and metal alloys, noble metals (e.g. niobium based) and numerous high-tech ceramic materials such as the below mentioned ceramic MAX materials. Further, we have the 1954 Campinas, Brazil case (Ref M12) wherein gallons of ultrapure tin was dropped. Clearly this was coolant flushing the contaminant ejection port. One interesting point is that the Ref M12 photo shows what appears to be a hollow tubular piece of solidified tin from the Campinas event. To me that indicates an annular-section dump port. Such a port with a retractable center pin would be very plug resistant to itself “freezing-up”. Note that there is probably nothing isotopically unearthly demonstrated about the dropped metal chunks-so that that historic assumption can lead one up a blind alley. However extensive isotopic testing, for example, might show something in some cases. One must be exceedingly careful in isotopic testing because some known earthly processes result in what is called natural isotopic fractionation which could appear as unusual isotopic extraterrestrial material compositions.
In the Campinas, Brazil case (Ref M12) I note that several antimony-free tin samples found later-on and purportedly from the earlier Brazilian event- comprised lead-tin. Although this is indeed a solder composition (missing is the strength-enhancing antimony) it is also a potential molten metal coolant composition (Ref M9). I note that for eutectic alloy mixtures such as lead-tin or lead-bismuth a UAP may well individually adjust each such constituent which would nicely account for the lead-tin and the pure tin at the same dump site. Perhaps a sudden composition correction or increase in cooling was needed.
Molten pure tin coolant has an attractive high thermal conductivity and boiling point, (relatively) low melting point and relative inertness. It forms a protective tin oxide skin if spilled and isn’t flammable or toxic. Several containment materials have been tested and proposed for molten tin (containment metals or alloys including titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum and columbium as well as a host of refractory ceramics (Ref M7). Pure tin is diamagnetic (Ref M15) with a diamagnetic value at -37.4 (moves away from intense magnetic fields). The top suggested metallic material(s) for liquid tin containment are tungsten-based and tungsten has a paramagnetic value at +53 (attracted to intense magnetic fields). Tungsten oxide WO2 is at +57 and tungsten oxide WO3 is at -15.8 and Tungsten Carbide WC is at +10. A second desirable containment is vanadium which is at +285, VO2 at +99 and V2O5 at +128. A third less desirable containment is Molybdenum at +72, Mo2O3 at -42, MoO3 at +3 and MoO2 at +41. I emphasize that oxide growth in metal liquid coolants can typically be controlled by oxygen concentration control as sensed by a solid-state electrolyte or conductivity sensor so that oxides do not have to be removed-they can often actually be beneficial if they protect the container wall and adhere there well. From this it does seem that a tungsten-based container with liquid tin might be magnetically cleansed. Either way UAPs have used (at-least) molten liquid-tin regardless of their purification method. Cobalt contaminant may also be removed from tin coolant and is likely easily magnetically filtered from tin (ferromagnetic attractive cobalt vs repulsed diamagnetic tin). A last means of removing contaminants mentioned above is by using a “cold-trap” which is essentially a cooler (but still hot) appendage inserted in the coolant path whereupon the contaminant is “plated out” by being bought into local supersaturation. Such removed material could also be expelled from a UAP waste port.
Liquid tin, slowly flowing (about 3 meters/second) around 500 deg C, can remove about a gigawatt per cubic meter of waste heat. I note that such minimum power levels were identified as being employed by UAPs in the optical (power) emission investigation of J. Vallee which included a case calculated by optical physicist B. Maccabee (Ref M16). At that modest application temperature (450-550 Deg C) for tin-coolant Molybdenum, Vanadium, Tungsten, Chromium and refractory ceramic-based containment materials are strong candidate containment materials. The author and others regard such temperatures well below 600 Deg C as modest with respect to containment dissolution rates based on human testing. I note again that liquid tin, unlike lead-based coolants, produces no alpha nuclides such as volatile Po-210 and Pb-202 upon operational neutron irradiation making it much safer to maintain if neutron bombardment is taking place. Note that any apparatus operating at a gigawatt/cubic meter and 500 Deg C would completely melt if not explode to metallic vapor in a few seconds if the cooling totally failed or was removed and heat evolution could not be quickly quenched
I stress that the liquid metal coolant, for example liquid tin, may be used by the UAP to cool a device such as solid-state laser bank employed to cause boron-hydrogen fusion or to cool the adjacent necessary ion current-to-voltage power generator. Liquid lead-based coolant could also be used. Thus massive neutron bombardment of coolant need not be an issue to use liquid metal cooling. Note that the famous (infamous?) 1966 Hillsdale, Michigan UAP event left extensive boron contamination in the swamp per Dr. Hynek’s reporting. Excess boron should be expected in the boron-hydrogen laser fusion scheme (presuming it was employed at Hillsdale by the several UAPs) both from the raw fuel source and as byproducts of incomplete fusion. No process is 100% efficient. More likely is that, per the exterior-sourced Angel Hair explanation, the Boron came from exterior hull agglomerate containing widely distributed interstellar boron based dust.
A few more cases I will mention appear in Ref M17, an internet available Power Point presentation again by the respected researcher Jacques Vallee et al. My first note is that the reference does not provide the details of each fall- i.e. Was it hot or molten? Was it a liquid stream? Or was it a broken-off or as-dropped cool exterior part of the UAP. I fully appreciate that we may not know. I’m guessing that some of those reported falls with no samples retained (that we know of) were simply visually characterized by a witness and never lab tested. Again, we must understand what fell off the UAP exterior as opposed to fell from the UAP interior. I’ve offered my explanation for slags including glassy slags from the UAP exterior. These are burned porous combusted hydrocarbon/interstellar dust mixtures. The interstellar dust contains substantial metals. Exterior slags sometimes even incorporate hull curvature, are porous and very brittle, and easily fragmented and dark (but possibly shiny and glassy) in color. Ejected metallics from a UAPs interior retain the general shape/size of the semimolten (plastic-flow) or fully molten-liquid extrusion port. They are typically strong, dense (not very porous) and small. Typically, they are low in carbon as nothing significant (hydrocarbons) was burned. We will just confuse ourselves if we assume a broken off UAP exterior body part made of a magnesium, aluminum or titanium alloy (likely body composition materials) was dropped in a molten (or recently molten state) and was a coolant or coolant contaminant. I think liquid aluminum, magnesium and aluminum-magnesium molten metals are less likely used as UAP coolants but it isn’t at all impossible as humans handle these molten materials routinely despite their very high reactivity. Note that aluminum attacks iron oxide so a stainless containment is unlikely without a superb defect-free long lasting coating. Let me put doubt aside for a moment anyway. After all, every metal has different nuclear activation behavior and the coolant might be purposely activated for some reason or be selected for having absolutely no troublesome activation. Further, the “coolant” might be used for another purpose not comprehended.
So let me now mention the photo of the aluminum-based ejected slug in Ref M17 slide 12 falling around 1975 in Bogota, Columbia. First, I wish to point out the dark striations seen on the slug surface. These may be contaminants in an aluminum cooled system or may be aluminum-based contaminants or oxides from a different molten coolant such as lead-based or tin-lead based. The striations may indicate forced extrusion flow as forced out of a confined ejection orifice in a hot plastic state. With sectioning and/or micro X-Ray tomography this could be proven. The aluminum also contained some phosphorous and iron-possibly from a stainless containment. A few references are now offered which should make it clear that humans can even handle molten aluminum for extended periods. The first reference Ref M18 describes coating steel with tungsten-carbide/cobalt to provide protection from molten aluminum. The second reference Ref M19 mentions that molten aluminum has been tested and worked well with crucibles made of graphite, aluminosilicate refractories, aluminum-nitride AlN, aluminum oxide Al2O3, and silicon nitride Si3N4. Even titanium and niobium had some promise. Morgan Advanced Materials make a line of strong molten-aluminum crucibles made from their Syncarb Z2e2 ©TM which is a strong ceramic containing graphite and silicon carbide. Argon gas is effective in minimizing aluminum evaporation for any aluminum melt. Humans are just scratching the surface of ceramics technologies.
Because I have no description of the sample being found or seen falling I can’t judge whether the J. Vallees Ref M17 slide 7 “Newark, Ohio” and “Nevada/NIDS” samples are exterior slag, structural UAP parts, solidified interior coolant or non-UAP related. More detail is needed-i.e. was it a shaped slug or a solidified melt or possibly a machined, pressed, forged or cast part?
I wish to say a couple of things about cases the reader likely knows but I haven’t mentioned above (but I have thought a lot about and they are mentioned in the Vallee refs).
1) The first is the well-known Ubataba, Brazil case: If we believe the Ubataba UAP explosion event really happened, despite the nagging anonymous sample delivery, then the magnesium fragments may well be melted structural portions of the craft itself. What I don’t understand is why so few samples were collected and why underwater sample recovery in a serious way apparently wasn’t undertaken by the military/police. Are the interviews of the fishermen available? Were they under oath? Were underwater metal detectors employed? Can the exact site be relocated? Can we see the fisherman testimony? Did the military/police have no involvement at all?
2). Maury Island, Washington, another well-known case: It is my opinion that this really happened and that the FBI dismissed it as a hoax despite two of our American Military men being killed transporting at-least exterior-sourced (I claim) slag evidence. The plane crash may have been just unlucky-we will likely never know. The FBI man’s explanation of the slag as coming from a local Tacoma steel mill was likely untrue-whether the FBI man believed that or not. The FBI also avoided discussing the foil ribbons in detail. It appears to me that the slag was sourced from the UAP external hull (from burned agglomerate as explained elsewhere on this website) and that the ribbons were perhaps tin or aluminum based extruded coolant or coolant contaminants or both as in Brazil. I think it likely that extensive slag formation caused an overheating of the propulsion means causing an overheating of the coolant. As one can easily imagine, the best way to get rid of highly reactive molten coolant (particularly reactive aluminum or toxic lead) is overboard. Was a metal-detector search done? Both tin and especially aluminum strips in seawater would be preserved for a long time although the aluminum will be pitted. I am aware there was a post-2000 search. This case has always bothered me-particularly as it happened just before the Kenneth Arnold case involving a similar fleet of UAPs.
I sincerely invite others working on this problem to see how their valuable data might also fit this explanation. If one assumes that the dropped slugs are contaminants and that UAPs do use molten liquid coolants then the phenomenon makes sense. Finally, let me remind the reader that when the UAPs are in distress (pre-dumping state) they do the pendulum or “falling leaf” motion as explained in the websites “Falling Leaf” section. This maximizes their available instantaneous levitation ability and thereby provides greater margin to prevent falling to the ground. It is likely that the UAP in-trouble has an overheated and reduced-power propulsion means. Obviously when multiple other UAPs come to the aid of the stricken UAP there is likely a dangerous problem for the UAP and any crew it may contain. It may well be that the overheating is causing the operational degradation of superconducting members and/or coolant in the UAP and for that very limited time is available to recover and remain airborne. In fact the distressed UAP may drop near the ground in case it loses the battle whereupon its fellow UAPs pick up any (on the ground) crew and assure the destruction (or repair?) of the distressed craft. There is a multiwitness case from 1950 in South America (Argentina?) wherein a very reliable Dr. Enrique Botta (an Aeronautical Engineer and a pilot), peeked inside a landed 32 foot diameter grounded UAP with an open door next to the road. He saw three small dead aliens and a control panel. He went back to his hotel and returned the next morning with multiple armed friends. They all saw a pile of ashes where the UAP was the night before and a cigar UAP with two additional disc UAPs hovering above (from educatinghumanity.com website). Of additional interest is the rubbery silver UAP hull he noted. Apparently. a book was later written about this event called “Situation Red”.
Other Possibly Relevant Items To This (UAP interior) Fallen Metal Subject:
1) “Some observations on the compatibility of structural materials with molten lead”, R.C. Asher, D. Davies, S.A. Beetham in Corrosion Science, Vol 17, pages 545-557 Applied Chemistry Division, AERE Harwell, Didcot, Oxon, UK. Note that this paper claims that adding titanium to lead based coolant greatly protects a number of containment materials-presumably because of titanium dioxide formation on the walls. Note that one Vallee “Sierra” sample tentatively comprised iron and titanium.
2) As there have been a very broad range of UAP shapes and ET body forms I think that there is also a range of UAP powerplants and cooling means. The lowest maintenance ones with the best safety may be the most evolved or oldest. They likely collectively come from many many civilizations-not all of whom are aware of each other. Some of these UAP technologies were probably developed in isolation from other E.T.s
3) One would think that the UAP crews don’t think the above fallen metal evidence is enough to decipher their propulsion method and I believe that is correct. But it would surprise me that they don’t care if we figure propulsion out.
4) "Corrosion-Resistant Ternary Carbides For Use in Heavy Liquid Metal Coolants” by K. Lambrinou, T. Lapauw, A. Jianu, A. Weisenburger, J. Ejenstam, P. Szakálos, J. Wallenius, E. Ström, K. Vanmeensel and J. Vleugels, University of Huddersfield, in Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings 2015
This report describes the good performance of “MAX” ceramics such as Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2, (Ti,Nb)2AlC, Nb2AlC, Nb4AlC3 and Ti2SnC and Nb4AlC3. Note that these would eventually deposit titanium aluminum, niobium and tin species in the coolant whether present as coatings or bulk materials especially if coolant temperature spiked or oxygen control was totally lost. In any event these are very resistant to flowed molten lead under anticipated GEN4 operating conditions. Such “MAX” ceramics are available at least in Germany and Sweden
5) Stainless steels with high silicon content, or high silicon content coatings thereon, are molten lead-alloy resistant. These would provide a potential silicon source into melt. The protection is most likely due to silicon dioxide formation on the stainless wall protecting the steel. Oxygen control is necessary.
References in text used above are listed below:
Ref M1) “Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports: The Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the Pocantico Conference Center, Tarrytown, New York, September 29 - October 4, 1997”, Pages 208-209 (J. Vallee et al’s ongoing work is described), Peter Sturrock workshop director
Ref M2) “Liquid metal coolants technology for fast reactors”, V.M. Poplavsky, A.D. Efanov, F.A. Kozlov, Yu.I. Orlov, and A.P. Sorokin. This is a good backgrounder particularly on lead-based coolants for ground based reactors and potassium-sodium and lithium for spacecraft.
Ref M3) United States Naval Post-Graduate School Thesis: Analysis Of Coolant Options For Advanced Metal Cooled Nuclear Reactors” by Levent Can, Dec. 2006. Tin coolant is also discussed.
Ref M4) “Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors” by Peter Wydler, Chimia 59 (2005) 970–976 © Schweizerische Chemische Gesellschaft ISSN 0009–4293 in Chemistry And Materials In Nuclear Power Production
Ref M5) “A Quicker Path to Fusion Power? Australian Scientists Claimed Astonishing Breakthrough”
Ref M6) “Experimental Study On Material Compatibility For Heavy Liquid Metal Coolants”, Kondo M. Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 2002, ASME
Ref M7) “Thermomechanical Properties of W-Re Alloys & Initial Survey of Molten Tin Corrosion Data” by S.J. Zinkle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory presented at APEX Study Meeting UCLA, November 2-4, 1998
Ref M8) “Radical Hydrogen-Boron Reactor Leapfrogs Current Nuclear Fusion Tech”, by Loz Blain, Feb 21, 2020, on newatlas.com website. Same technology as in Ref M5.
Ref M9) “Potentials Of Molten Tin as a Coolant for Electronuclear Systems”, G.L. Khorasanov, A.P. Ivanov, andA.L. Shimkevich
Ref M10) “Liquid Metal Cooling In Thermal Management Of Computer Chips”, Review Article, Published October 2007 by Kunquan Ma & Jing Liu, Frontiers of Energy and Power Engineering in China volume 1, pages 384–402
Ref M11) “Liquid Metal Heat Sink For High-Power Laser Diodes”, John Vetrovec, Amardeep Litt, Drew Copeland, Jeremy Junghans, Proceedings Volume 8605, High-Power Diode Laser Technology And Applications XI, at SPIE LASE, San Francisco, Ca 2013
Ref M12) “The Campinas Sighting” by Charles A. Maney appearing on ignaciodarnaude.com website
Ref M13) International UFO Reporter (IUR), Fall 2001, Volume 26, Number 3
Ref M14) “Physical Analyses In Ten Cases Of Unexplained Aerial Objects With Material Samples” by Jacques F. Vallee, in Journal Of Scientific Exploration, Vol.12, No.3, 1998
Ref M15) (Tables)
Ref M16) “Estimates of Optical Power Output in Six Cases of Unexplained Aerial Objects With Defined Luminosity Characteristics” by Jacques F. Vallee, Appearing in Journal Of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 345, 1998
Ref M17) “What Do We Know About The Material Composition Of UFOs? Work In Progress: A Status Report”- PowerPoint presentation of Dr. Jacques Vallee, Documatica Research, LLC. And Dr. Garry Nolan, Stanford University School of Medicine, Paris, June 2017
Ref M18) “Protection Of Carbon Steel Against Molten Aluminum Attack And High Temperature Corrosion Using High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel WC–Co Coatings”, A.J. López , J. Rams in Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 262, 25 January 2015, Pages 123-133
Ref M19) ‘Review; Durability Of Materials in Molten Aluminum Alloys” by M. Yan and Z. Fan in Journal Of Materials Science, no36, pages 285-295